Insect pests are more than just an inconvenience for dairy producers; they are devastating to the herd in the form of weight and production losses. The key to insect control is integrated pest management.
Common Pests in Dairies
Three pests commonly encountered in dairy facilities are flies, lice, and mosquitoes:
- House Flies are the most encountered pests in our industry because they live closely with confined animals and will feed on almost any organic matter. Irritation caused to cattle from flies can cut into your bottom line with losses in total body weight and production. Other filth flies that could impact your herd include stable flies, horn flies, and face flies.
- Lice on beef cattle is a common issue for producers and it gets worse in the winter. Louse control is important to maintaining health and growth through the colder months.
- Mosquitoes are one of the most detrimental insects to humans and livestock. Large populations can cause irritation and extensive blood loss to livestock.
Failure to effectively control these insect pests can lead to expensive problems:
- House flies can cause a total decrease of 3.3% in milk production.1
- Dairy producers experience a decreased lactation rate of approximately 16% due to the presence of horn flies on cows.2
- The economic impact of lice has been difficult to assess,3 but United States livestock producers lose approximately $125 million per year due to cattle lice, as estimated by the USDA.4
Integrated Pest Management & Control
Simply put, integrated pest management (IPM) is the combination of several insect control measures to combat a pest population, including sanitation, physical barriers, cultural control methods, and insecticides.
- Filth fly control can be easily accomplished by eliminating water and/or food.
- Remove sources of food and do away with sources of moisture.
- Reduce the amount of organic material present, including manure, spilled feed, and carrion.
- Spread and dry manure to reduce the moisture content and eliminate fly development. Aim to reduce the moisture content to less than 30%.
Cultural controls are practices that reduce insect establishment or survival. If cultural control is not an option in a specific area of the facility, that may indicate a target area for insecticide application.
- Implement fans in barns or animal shelters to make it difficult for flies and mosquitoes to land.
- Manage vegetation through mowing and tree pruning which reduces the available areas that flies seek harborage.
Mechanical, or physical, control options include those that block out insect pests.
- Install screens to windows to eliminate large areas of insect intrusion.
- Fly traps, sticky traps, or fly zappers can be used for control in small areas, such as an office.
Biological control of insects involves using natural predators of target insects to manage the population.
- Small parasitic wasps may be released around animal production systems. The wasps will seek out fly pupae, insert their eggs, and the developing wasps will complete their development using the fly as a host.
- Take care when applying premise applications of insecticides as they can negatively affect insects intended for biological control.
Chemical Control Options
Insecticides are an effective and important line of defense against fly infestations. Always follow label recommendations and be aware of product application methods and restrictions.
On- / Over-animal Insecticides
Natural pyrethrin insecticides are excellent options for fly control. Pyrethrins deliver a fast knockdown and often contain a synergist. These insecticides are usually applied through a misting or fogging system.
- ULD® BP-100
Use when you need an oil-based product for insects that are difficult to control, such as flies, mites, and ticks.
- Evergreen® Pro 60-6
Use when you need a quick knockdown of flying insects.
Use when looking for an economical product that provides fast knockdown and kill of mosquitoes and filth flies.
Use when looking for long-term stability in water dilutions.
Use when looking for a broad-spectrum product that provides residual control up to 28 days.
Premise treatments can be applied in areas where animals are not present and are designed to have longer residual effects.
Microencapsulated formulations provide longer residual effects, as the active ingredients are released into the soil over time. Premise treatments can also contain quick-knockdown adulticides or IGRs that reduce the number of flies in future generations.
Use this microencapsulated pyrethroid with an IGR to get quick knockdown of listed pests plus residual control.
- Onslaught® FastCap
Use when knockdown and residual control of insects are needed but not an IGR.
- Sumari® Insecticide
Use when looking for an outdoor broadcast neonicotinoid rotation product that contains an IGR and will tackle tough issues like fire ants.
- Shockwave® 1
Use this aerosol formulation for a convenient application indoors and out.
Fly baits are applied to areas that are not accessible to animals and can be supplemental to premise or over-animal sprays.
Fly baits may be scattered in areas of known fly development, installed in bait stations, or mixed with water to spray or paint on surfaces. Fly baits may also be used as a maintenance treatment in the fall and winter.
Use when you want a fly bait that can do more with an IGR.
Insect Growth Regulators
Insect growth regulators (IGR) target immature stages of insects. IGRs help control future populations of flies by reducing the number of fly eggs, larvae, and pupae that make it to adulthood.
- NyGuard® IGR
Use in drier areas of fly development, such as cattle holding pens and on walls where flies rest.
- Flynexx® Granules
Use anywhere fly larvae are developing.
- Sumilarv® 0.5G
Use in areas of standing water, such as lagoons and in flush pits.
Final Tip for Success: Class Rotation
- Freeborn, S.B., Regan, W.M. and Folger, A.H. (1925) The relation of flies and fly sprays to milk production. J. Econ. Entomol., 18: 779-790.
- Blezinger, S. 2017. Causes, costs and effects of flies in beef cattle. Progressive Cattleman, February 24, 2017.
- Townsend, L. 2000. ENTFACT-512 Lice on Beef and Dairy Cattle. University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. Lexington, KY.
- Campbell, J. B. 1992. G92-1112 Lice Control on Cattle. Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension. Lincoln, NE